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1.Can you describe the difference between the climate in Poland and in Great Britain? = czy możesz przedstawić różnice między klimatem w Polsce a w Wielkiej Brytanii?


Poland and Britain are European countries. To some extend they are similar, but at the same time they are very different. The United Kingdom is situated on islands and Poland is a part of a big continent. They are quite close, the distance is not great, still it influences the weather. Let’s try to compare the climate of these countries and further on – find the similarities and the differences.
The climate in the United Kingdom is influenced by warm tropical airflow and the cold polar one. For that reason, it is very changeable. What is more, the weather can be different in different parts of the country. In Northern Ireland, the Lake District and the Western Isles of Scotland winters are usually mild and summers – rather cool. Mild winters and warm summers are typical for the Irish Republic, Wales and Southwest England. In Midlands and Southeast England winters are cold and summers are warm. To sum up, English weather changes very often but it is never harsh.
Polish climate isn’t monotonous. The western part represents the moderate climate of western Europe while the eastern part suffers from more severe weather. The weather changes very often, especially in winter. Nowadays there is less snow and the winter months are often mild. However, there are regions of Poland where weather conditions can be extreme (e.g. Suwalszczyzna). In the north, near the sea the weather is less severe, but sometimes the inhabitants of the sea-side suffer from storms.
When we consider average temperature in the United Kingdom, we obviously see that it is not a very cold territory. The average maximum temperature in England is 20,6 degrees (in July) and the average minimum temperature is 1 degree (in February). In Northern Ireland the average maximum temperature is 18,4 (in July) and the minimum is 1,2 degree (in January and February). Scotland is the coldest part of the United Kingdom. The average maximum temperature is only 16,9 degrees (in July) and the minimum temperature is minus 0,2 degree. In Wales the average maximum temperature is 19,1 degrees (in July) and February is the coldest month with the average temperature of 1,1 degree. It is easy to notice that the temperature is rather high and frost doesn’t occur very often.
In Poland summers is the warmer season. The average temperature varies from 16,5 degrees to 20 degrees. Winter moths are the coldest with the minimum average temperature of minus 6 degrees. We can experience some extreme weather conditions in the mountains. Szczecin and the nearby territories are the warmest. Sometimes it is raining in one part of our country and at the same time the sun is shinning in the other part.
In the United Kingdom wind blows from the south-west. However, the weather changes so often that we can experience long spells of winds blowing from the east. In cities the speed of wind reduces. Gales occur in the coast of Devon and Cornwall because those regions are the most exposed. Nowadays the climate is changing and the British experience it too. Strong winds are becoming more and more common. Gales often destroy trees or even buildings. People who live at the sea-side are familiar with the sea breeze – a light wind which blows from the sea.
The most common winds in Poland are those which blow from the west, south-east and north-east. They account for 60% of all winds in Poland. Marine air is responsible for the rainfall. In the southern-east part of the country there are places with no wind at all. Poland uses wind to produce energy but still it is not as popular as the traditional energy sources. We have been suffering from gales for few years. They destroy many buildings. Sometimes they even pull out trees. Nowadays it is an important issue. The United Kingdom and Poland have the same problem – the climate change affects the weather and the changes are rather negative.
According to stereotype it rains constantly in England, but actually it is not true. It rains only 113 days a year. What is more, the United Kingdom has some drought problems and it causes fires in some parts of the country. The wetter part of the United Kingdom are the mountains in Wales, Scotland and the moors in the south-west England. The average annual amount of rainfall in these regions is 4577 milimetres. There are also prolonged periods of heavy rain. Sometimes they cause flooding.
The annual average amount of rainfall is 600 milimetres and 2/3 falls during summer months. The wettest regions are: the sea-side and the mountains. Winters are often mild so it often rains in winter months. Sometimes the storms are very strong. They often occur with the gales and cause destruction. On the other hand there are periods of drought. It is a huge problem for the farmers and the agriculture.
Sun doesn’t shine very often in the United Kingdom. The total annual amount is 1339 hours – 30% of what is possible. Clouds often appear in the sky and for that reason it is gloomy and depressing. However the south coast of England can boast about the clearest skies in the United Kingdom.
In Poland the Sun shines 150 days a year. The cloudiest month is November. It is also the gloomiest month which causes autumn depression. In August and September the sky is the clearest.
Climate in the United Kingdom and Poland is mild, although, as I have proved, British territories are warmer. The United Kingdom is a perfect place for farming – the temperature is rather high and so is the rainfall. For that reason, agriculture has always been an important sector, especially in the south of England. In Poland agriculture is also important but in some regions the conditions are not as good as in the United Kingdom. If we compare the flora of these two countries, we will notice that in both cases it is very diverse. However in the United Kingdom the vegetation season starts earlier. In my opinion both countries are perfect holidays spots but in the case of the United Kingdom it is more difficult to predict the weather – it changes so often. On the same day it can rain, snow and be hot so choosing the right outfit is not an easy task. In Poland the weather is easier to predict. The important issue is the climate change which affects both countries. First of all, the temperature is higher than it used to be. The change is not immense but we can easily observe it – winters are warmer and summers are sometimes so hot that it is difficult to breathe. What is more, gales and frightening storms are becoming more and more frequent. The damage is sometimes so huge that the authorities have to interfere. Fortunately, there are people who are aware of that problem. Climate is an essential issue which concerns all of us.
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