To zadanie z angielskiego przetlumaczyc fakty o uniwersytecie w stockholmie
Frescati has been used for scientific and educational purposes for almost 200 years. Before that time the area surrounding Frescati was, for many years, used as a royal game park. During the time of Karl XI’s the crown took over the land from a Klara Monastery and converted it to a game park. The land was enclosed by fencing to keep the park’s several hundred deer away from the water and to prevent wolves from coming in during the winter. The fence was twenty kilometres long and was built by workers from Åland as an alternative form of tax payment. By the beginning of the 1800s the fashion for hunting deer waned and most of the deer were moved to what is now Hjorthagen, a suburb or Stockholm.
Frascati becomes Frescati
The name Frescati originates from Villa Frescati, which was located on Brunnsviken’s east beach and was built in 1791 by Gustav III’s favourite, Gustav Mauritz Armfeldt. The villa was named after the Italian city of Frascati, visited by King Gustav III during his Italian journey. After the King’s visit to Frascati it became popular to give Italian names to properties around the Haga area of Stockholm. The villa, situated near to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, still stands today.
In 1816 the Royal Academy of Agriculture moved out to Frescati. The Academy carried out botanical experiments in the area between Stora Skuggan and Frescati, north of Laduviken. New species of plants and agricultural techniques were tested. The area was christened “The Experimental Area”. Mulberry, fruit and other trees, including thousands of oak trees were planted there. Tool sheds, a cowshed and a barn were erected and several years later, around 1837-38, the main building in this area was constructed. Known as Bloms Hus, the building now houses parts of the University administration, as well as the Vice-Chancellor’s office. During the 1860s plans were launched to create a model farm in the area. A large cowshed with a barn was built, as well as dwellings for agricultural workers from Skogstorpet and other areas. In 1883, Gula Villan [literally, the “Yellow House”] was built as a dwelling for the farm manager and three years later, in 1886, Greens Villa was built for the director of the area.
The dream of a Science Park
After 1907 little change was made to the Experimental Area’s physical environment, although others began to move into the area at this time. In 1885 the Bergius Botanic Garden moved out to Frescati and between 1907 and 1916 an early prototype of a science park began to take shape. This included the Swedish Museum of Natural History, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry, the University College for Foresty, the Veterinary College, and a little further south, the Royal Institute of Technology. This was perhaps an expression of what architect Axel Anderberg intended when, back in 1928, he designed the Natural History Museum. Anderberg also presented at that time a plan for the development of a science park with a variety of different buildings in the same style, to be situated to the south and west of the Royal Natural History Museum. From 1930-40 the expansion continued and the Nobel Institute for Physics, Cyklotron Laboratory and the National Veterinary College moved to the area around this time.
Stockholm University moves to Frescati
When the Swedish parliament decided in 1959 that the newly founded Stockholm University, previously Stockholm University College, should be moved from central Stockholm to Frescati, it was surely a decision that would have appealed to Axel Anderberg.
Axel Anderberg would certainly have approved of the decision, taken by the Swedish Parliament in 1959, to relocate the newly founded Stockholm University, formerly Stockholm University College, from central Stockholm to Frescati.
The decision to move to Frescati was taken without much discussion, despite the protestations of a certain Mr Larsson, who in a debate in the Lower Chamber pointed out that the area was “extremely sensitive”. The Chemical Practice Laboratory was established in the 1960s, north of the National Museum as the first of the university’s building in Frescati. After that the Department of Botany and the Wallenberg Laboratory were built in the Lilla Frescati area. The move to Frescati continued in earnest at the beginning of the 1970s with the completion of the six high-rise blocks, named “Södra huset” [the “Southern House”].
Several years later the Arrhenius laboratories were also added. Allhuset, the University Library, the sports hall known as Frescatihallen, Juristernas hus, Aula Magna and the Geo-Science Building (Geovetenskapens hus) have in recent years contributed to making the campus a vibrant and inspiring university environment.
The University becomes part of the National Urban Park
Stockholm University is one of the few universities in the world that is situated within a national urban park. The decision to declare the area a national urban park was taken by the Swedish parliament in December 1994. The University lies in the centre of the park, which extends over the areas of Ulriksdal, Haga, Brunnsviken and Djurgården. In concrete terms this means that any additional buildings must be constructed in careful accordance with agreed standards, as well as being in-keeping with the character of the area.
• Faculty and employees: 6,300 plus approx 1,800 part time teachers
• Professors (men/women): 10% (26 % women and 74 % men)
• Lecturers: 13% (48% women and 52% men)
• Junior lecturers: 9% (63% women and 37% men)
• Postdoctoral fellows: 3% (50% women and 50% men)
• Part-time teachers: 1%
• Doctoral studentships: 18% (57% women and 43% men)
• Other employees who teach and carry out research: 16%
• Administrative staff: 21%
• Technical staff: 8%
• Library staff: 3%
• Turnover: a total of SEK 3,6 billion
- Undergraduate education: 42%
- Research and doctoral programme: 58%
• Revenues divided among
- Government grants (public funding): 69%
- External funding: 21%
- Fees and other renumerations: 10%
• Costs divided among:
- Employees: 65%
- Premises: 16%
- Operating costs: 15%
- Other costs: 4%