Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 in Salzburg, died. December 5, 1791 in Vienna, Austria) - Austrian composer and musician, along with Haydn and Beethoven, belonging to the group of Viennese classics
Born in Salzburg, the capital of small independent Archbishopric within the Holy Roman Empire, the seventh child of Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria Pertl home. He was four years older sister, Maria Anna called Nannerl, who also showed a musical talent. Together with her when she was 11 years old, small Wolfi played harpsichord duets on a cloth covering the keyboard. Father - Leopold Mozart - he took them across Europe, through which he became ill, Wolfgang. In 1761 he composed his first piece - Minuet and Trio, KV 1
The remaining five siblings died as infants. In the age of three Wolfi heard his sister playing on the harpsichord, amused himself searching thirds of the instrument (as mentioned later, his sister). From the age of five he learned to play the harpsichord and violin under the guidance of his father.
At baptism he was given the names of Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus, the first two in honor of the patron saint of the Catholic birth of John Chrysostom, in memory of Wolfgang's maternal grandfather, and Theophilus in remembrance of her godfather. Most of his life, however, the composer used the names of Wolfgang Amadé. Amade is a French version Greek name Theophilus (a friend of God or beloved of God). Previously also used the Italian version (Amadeo). In the early papers was also a form of Wolfgang Gottlieb (Gottlieb German translation for Theophilus). By contrast, never used today, the most common version of the Latin Amadeus. As a child, parents also used diminutives Wolferl, Wolfgangerl and in the early days Wolfi, what is known of his father's letters and other sources.
In January 1762 Leopold Mozart and his children went to the first artistic journey - to Munich for the first family tour. Details of the 3-week stay are not sent. Next trip the whole family, started in September the same year, led by Passau and Linz to Vienna. In the Habsburg capital, Wolfgang and Nannerl presented as klawesyniści both the imperial court and in the palaces of the aristocracy. On the way back the family stayed for two weeks in Bratislava and at the beginning of January 1763 she returned to Salzburga.W June 1763, encouraged by a successful trip to Vienna, Leopold Mozart and his wife and both his or her children went on much longer tour. Originally planned to travel to many cities in Germany and to Paris; any further goals were to depend on the success - especially the material - past concerts. Wolfgang and Nannerl toured therefore in Munich, Augsburg, Schwetzingen, Mainz, Frankfurt am Main (where the concert of Mozart came to the young Goethe), Koblenz, and (probably) Akwizgranie.W October 1763, the family came to Mozart Brukseli.W 1764 Wolfgang played at Versailles for Louis XV and George Buckingham Palace III.W 1769 years Mozart has been concertmaster of the orchestra arcybiskupiej.W years 1769-1773 3-fold visited Italy (December 1769 - March 1771, August - December 1771 and October 1772 - March 1773). During the first visit he met in Bologna G.B. Martini, and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. During the journey, after hearing the Sistine Chapel Miserere Gregorio Allegri enrolled this track from memory. "Miserere" could be exercised only in the chapel. The Pope admired the genius of a young artist and gave him the title Knight of the Order of the Golden Spurs "(with the well-known composers such award has previously Gluck). In 1773 he went with his father to Vienna, probably in search of a job at the court of Vienna. He remained there for four months, but jobs are not obtained. However, the stay in Vienna was important for the development of his work (such as familiar then with the new quartets by Haydn). The next trip, the three-month, held in late 1774 - 1775 in Munich, where he finished to compose comic opera alleged gardener and conducted its prapremierą.We September 1777 Mozart began its tour across Europe. Because his father, Leopold Mozart, received a long leave from the Archbishop Wolfgang mother went in the company. The initial targets were traveling Munich and Mannheim. After a long stay in Mannheim, both went on to Paris, where Mozart spent half a year in 1778. Stay in Paris was a total failed: Mozart has not earned the recognition of Parisian music lovers (although the performance of his Symphony "Paris" was a success, KV 297), or a job in France. Strongly encourage the father to return to Salzburg, went up again, stopping in Mannheim and MonachiumW June 1778 his mother fell ill and died July 3, 1778 in Paryżu.W January 1779 Mozart came to Salzburga.Lata 1779 and 1780 Mozart lived in Salzburg. Then it received a contract to write a great opera to start the opera season in Munich in December 1780. This was an opera Idomeneo, the king Krety.W November 1780 he went to Munich to complete work on the work, supervise and conduct the premiere of the sample and the next few shows. Although the premiere of Idomeneo has been postponed due to mourning after the death of Maria Theresa, November 29, 1780, but finally took place January 29, 1781. Arrived at the Munich premiere of Mozart's father and his sister. Using exit chlebodawcy, Archbishop Hieronymus von Colloredo, to Vienna, Mozart arbitrarily extended stay in Monachium.W 1777 years Mozart fell in love with Alojzie Weber. In Munich he met sixteen soprano, which also fell in love. He wanted to go with her on a journey, but those plans thwarted by Leopold Mozart, who forbade his son and forced to leave him, so he moved with his mother to Paris. Soon, on the way back to Salzburg, Mozart was able to meet in Vienna with his first love, Aloysia Weber, who gave him to understand, were not returned his feelings. Depressed because of the double loss, which was the loss of his mother and Aloysia, he returned to Salzburg, where he found work alongside the then Archbishop-Prince - Count Hieronymus von Colloredo. This work did not last too long, because in 1781 Mozart had quarreled with his employer and he went to Vienna, where he rented a room in a family Weberów. Alojz had married, but Wolfgang very pleased by her sister Konstancja.14 August 1782, Wolfgang married Constanze Weber (1762-1842), who was a singer, and began work on an opera The Abduction from the Seraglio. During their 9-year marriage, Constance gave birth to the six children, of whom only survived dwójka.17 June 1783, the first-born son of Mozart, but the child died August 19. October 26 was the first performance of Mass in C major KV 427
End of life
Mozart had a difficult life. Often receive remuneration for their work, and when he had the money, chasing a big total, leading an extravagant lifestyle. Testified, however, not to his vanity, but a willingness to actively occur in the world of Viennese musicians, which was ultimately to bring additional revenue. Mozart conferred a large expenditure of his wife Constance. When it was already the sixth time in the pregnancy, she had big problems with his feet, forcing her to frequent and lengthy trips to the spa town of Baden.
In October 1791, nobody thought that after 2 months of Mozart will never be. For many years no one knew what caused the composer's death, the Romantic tradition and created around the fact that a lot of fantastic legends. After a lengthy analysis of the medical Anton Neumayra found quite specific disease Mozart, whose description can be found symptoms such as high fever, profuse sweating and rashes, inflammation and swelling within the limbs, body immobilized because of severe pain. Diagnosis speaks with acute rheumatic fever recurrence of the clinical picture of rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatism simultaneous occurrence of the brain linked to very high temperature and paralysis of the major centers of the brain. The direct cause of death shall be bloodletting made by the doctor for two hours before the death of Mozart. Syndrome was caused by streptococcus.
Mozart's death interrupted work on the Requiem Mass, the funeral, which was not completed. At the request of the wife of Mozart's work is completed the composers of his friends, Joseph Eybler and Franz Xaver Süssmayr. The manuscript notes of Mozart's last raised his hand fall to 8 beat vocal Lacrimosa.
It is commonly believed that Mozart died in poverty and oblivion, buried in the grave for the poor. In fact, although his work was not as fashionable in Vienna, however, continued to receive significant revenues from various parts of Europe, especially from the Czech Republic, namely in Prague. He was buried in the tomb 3 class, as most of the inhabitants of Vienna. Burial of this type determined the orders of Joseph II, two of the years 1784-85, which imposed the individual elements of the funeral.
Mozart spent the last years of his life in Vienna, where today you can visit one of his apartments at Domgasse 5, near the Cathedral. Stephen. The house that Mozart composed The Marriage of Figaro in 1786. Mozart lived for over 20 years, less than Beethoven, but he was amazingly prolific composer, from early childhood until his death in 1791
In 1809, Constance, married a Danish diplomat, Georg Nicolaus von Nissen, who was a lover of Mozart's works and wrote the first biography of the composer.