Skiing is a group of sports using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding.
Skiing can be grouped into two general categories. Nordic skiing, the older of the two disciplines, originated in Scandinavia and uses free-heel bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Types of nordic skiing include cross-country, ski jumping and Telemark. Alpine (often called "downhill") skiing, which began in the European Alps, uses fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel.
Skiing competition is organized by the International Ski Federation, which is responsible for development of rules and scheduling of competitions worldwide in alpine skiing, cross country skiing, freestyle skiing, Nordic combined and ski jumping. Competition is managed in each country by its national association. The U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association is responsible for competitive skiing in America.
Skiing for people with disabilities became popular after World War II with the return of injured veterans.It is both a recreational pastime and a competitive sport open to those with any manner of cognitive and/or physical disabilities. Adaptations include the use of outriggers, ski tip retention devices, sit-skis like monoskis and bi-skis, brightly colored guide bibs, ski guides, and inter-skier communication systems or audible clues for blind skiers.
Recreational skiing programs for people with disabilities exist at mountains across the globe.