Bread - bread produced from baking dough, which is a homogeneous combination of different kinds of cereal flour and water, subjected to the most, but not always, the alcoholic fermentation (using yeast) or lactic acid (bacterial), formed an in loaves of various shapes and sizes. In addition to the plump bread, wyrabianego with dough or dough with the addition of baking powder (sodium carbonate), are known varieties of bread dough-based niespulchnianym fragile.
Bread, known in antiquity, not resemble today's plump baked rather was close to the cake, now known or matzah thin underlay at the pizza. Such bread, it was easier to break than the cut and probably took away a well-known in many cultures practice ritual breaking bread. Breaking the habit, rather than slicing bread, moreover, remained today in the Mediterranean culture (eg France).
The basic ingredients of bread are wheat flour or rye flour, water, salt and additives, such as yeast or sour milk (to invoke the fermentation).
The aim is always to produce fermentation within the dough mass of significant quantities of carbon dioxide, which as a result of increasing their volume during the baking process causes the loosening of the final product. Plump for the production of bread on an industrial scale sometimes used instead of yeast sodium carbonate, which decomposes at elevated temperatures of separating carbon dioxide.
Bread is baked in the oven baking at a temperature of 200-250 ° C. Bread contains 45-49% carbohydrates, proteins 4,5-8,3%, about 1% fat, 0,2-1,5% fiber, about 1.5% of the substance popiołotwórczych and 42-48% water. Bread crust consists mainly of skarmelizowanej dextrin.