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According to research on the origin of the family Kopernik, it comes from Silesia. In the fourteenth and fifteenth century, there are references to the Kopernik clan living in the cities of Silesia, and then the other. Astronomer John's grandfather was a wealthy merchant of Cracow, the father of the wholesaler. Parents astronomer Barbara and Nicholas, had four children: Andrew, Nicholas, Barbara and Catherine. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473, in Torun, St. Anne Street. Today, this street Kopernika 17, and the building housed the museum. In 1483 Nicholas' father died. Care of the family became wealthy uncle, Bishop Lukasz Watzenrode. In autumn 1491 years 18 year-old Nicholas and his brother Andrew started his studies at the faculty of liberal arts at the University of Cracow. With time, this record stayed on the list adopted to study, "Nicholas, son of Nicholas of Thorn paid a whole (the amount of enrollment). Length of stay of Nicolaus Copernicus in Krakow for the period of great prosperity University of Cracow, founded by Casimir the Great in 1364, renewed by Wladyslaw Jagiello and Jadwiga in 1400, of which Schedel Nuremberg chronicler from the late fifteenth century, wrote that in Krakow: ".. at the Church of St. Anne is very loud with many famous statesmen and scholars of the university, which are grown with the skills ... most flourishing there, astronomy, and in this respect, I know many people in the whole of Germany there is no glorious school. " Nicolaus Copernicus in Krakow, he met the great scholars and hear their lectures. One of the eminent scholars of Krakow was Wojciech of Brudzewo. While Copernicus in Krakow has taught astronomy as he investigates the works of Aristotle. Copernicus attended various lectures: grammar, rhetoric, the poetics, but also lectures on mathematics and astronomy content. It is possible that it is precisely at this time in the mind of Nicholas Copernicus was born the concept of building a theory different from the current world. In 1495 years leaves Copernicus Krakow, in 1496 years in the lower kanonii Warmia ordained. In the same year he travels to Bologna to study canon law, to adopt a him to administer the ecclesiastical goods. Copernicus in Bologna stay lasted three years. Jurystycznych studies did not finish. May 31, 1503 roku her doctorate in canon law at Ferrara. In 1510 years, Nicolaus Copernicus settle permanently in Frombork, where he was appointed a canon. Own role as a canon of the cathedral in Frombork had perfect conditions to devote to research. For a time he worked as a physician, in his spare time he is astronomy. In 1521 Nicolaus Copernicus resigned from the office of administrator of the chapter. Can not be considered as a withdrawal from active participation in the activities of the chapter. Often served in a variety of it later, sometimes very responsible positions. He was a visitor, and later manager of the chapter. Nicolaus Copernicus was active in many fields of knowledge such as physics, geography, economics. As a canon of Warmia incumbent various positions in the administration of the diocese dealt with matters relating to the defense of Olsztyn. He also wrote the hearing and gave economic advice to the Polish king in matters related to the circulation of money. At that time monetary relations were complicated by the existence of 4 Mint: in Torun, Elblag, Gdansk, and Königsberg. Smelting was common practice for good coin worse, of which drew huge benefits not only the listed town but also the Teutonic Order. To counteract this, Nicolaus Copernicus wrote and spoke to the regional council of Prussia, which took place during the period from 17 to 21 March 1522 years in Grudziadz treatise on how to beat money Fri "Modus cudendi coin. In his treatise, Copernicus said that due to a decline in prices are still rising, and foreign trade are becoming increasingly difficult. Good silver coins are trapped and rendered on the inferior coin, of which derive profits giving the city the right to mint coins, and merchants who sell their goods at a value of gold. The first money drives out of circulation the better. But the treaty did not coin the only economic development by Nicolaus Copernicus. During many visits to Warmia said plight of the rural population, who lived in great poverty. The reason for grain prices were low relative to prices of other goods, and low wages which supply the peasants for their work. New situation prompted the great astronomer to study the prices of bread. Around 1530 years was a brief memorial Fri "Panis coquendi Ratio (Calculation bread) from the fair price of bread plates and a description of his baking. The purpose of the memorandum was to calculate the actual financial outlay associated with baking bread, so that its price could fall under the workload and commodity prices. Despite such a broad spectrum of activities, Copernicus continued to devote much time astronomy and the theory of construction of the world. The first outline of the theory of Copernicus gave the hearing, which is known under the title? Commentariolus Copernicus of the hypotheses created by the movements of the heavenly. In Komentarzyku, after a brief introduction, Copernicus shows some shortcomings of the old theory, which empowers him to propose a new, based on the following seven assumptions:
1. There is no single measure of all the celestial circles or spheres.
2. Center of the earth is not a measure of the universe, but only the center of gravity and measure the sphere of the moon.
3. All spheres orbit the sun as its center and therefore the Sun is a measure of the whole universe.
4. The ratio of the distance of Earth from the Sun to a height of the firmament is much smaller than the radius of the Earth relative to its distance from the Sun, and therefore the distance of Earth from the Sun is minutely small compared to the amount of the firmament.
5. Any movement is perceived in the firmament, it does not come with any movement firmament, but the motion of the earth. Earth and the elements okalającymi it makes a complete rotation around its unvarying daily poles, while the firmament and highest heaven remain motionless.
6. This is what we present as a movement of the sun, comes not from its motion, but the movement of the earth and our sphere, with which krążymy around the sun, just like any other planet. The Earth is therefore more than one movement.
7. Levels of simple and backward motion of planets comes not from their motion, but the motion of the earth.

Thus the motion of the earth itself is sufficient to explain many of the apparent movement in the sky. In their deliberations, Nicolaus Copernicus uses the concepts of the sixteenth century astronomers, speaking about the movements of the spheres in place of the movements of planets. Earth assigns three-fold movement: circulation around the sun, rotating around its axis, and the third movement which is peculiar in nature and in light of modern science is superfluous. In further consideration of Copernicus notes that the movements of planets in the sky should be related not to the point of equinox (because its position is not permanent), but for some stars. Copernicus to define the circulation of the Earth around the Sun chose the Ear star Mary and set the length of years as a star equal to 365d 6h 10m, so only about 1m more than it currently adopts. Copernicus, his hearing is not printed because it planned to write more extended work. For this purpose, but it took a lot of observation of the sun, moon and planets, and carry out many calculations. To their observations, Copernicus used simple tools, often of his own design. Used for the observation of planets: solar quadrant (to calculate the latitude location of observation), the sphere armilarną (for determining the angles of the coordinates of the planet), triquetrum (to observe the Moon). The calculations performed in the system sześćdziesiątkowym as decimal fractions in Europe were not yet known. It was not until 1585 years it has introduced a Dutch astronomer and mathematician Simon Stevin. Balances carried out by the Copernicus differ little from reality. In his work, Copernicus placed great emphasis on the observation that weryfikowały right theory. Incompatibility with the theory of observation dyskwalifikowała theory. The results of their accounts has figures in the tables, which have facilitated the calculation of the positions of the sun, moon and other planets in the sky. Copernicus also observed the eclipse of the sun and moon, using its own method called screen, which was the prototype of a photographic camera. Predicted phases of Venus and Mercury, as confirmed after Galileo. He believed that the world is spherical, and therefore finite. In another book I, "De revolutionibus" the issue of the finiteness of the world is left to philosophers of nature. The work of Nicolaus Copernicus made the revolution in views of the world. The concepts przedkopernikańskich distinguish destructible world events, and imperishable world worldly celestial phenomena. Different law ruled the four elements: earth, water, air and fire. In the world of consumable natural movements were movements of the straight, down to the center of the universe (ie the center of the earth) for the heavy elements, namely earth and water, and move upward to the light of the elements? air and fire. World indestructible built with different materials, perfect, ran in an eternal circular motion, and no changes were possible in it. The sun was set up to heat and illuminate the Earth, the moon would shine the darkness of night, and all nature in order to serve man. Based on these assumptions, all religions and belief that human souls arrived on Earth from celestial bodies, which is what determined the fate of humans on Earth. Thus astrology was born, very common in the days of Copernicus. Copernican theory treats the earth as one of many planets orbit the sun. Thus, the material forming the earth should have the same properties as the other planets. Assigning equal ownership of all celestial bodies and the earth leads to generalizations of great scientific and philosophical. This is a statement of the unity of rights and the unity of matter in the universe. In 1539? 1541 resides in Frombork wittemberskiego University mathematics professor Georg Joachim von Lauchen, commonly known as Rheticus. Frombork leaving with him a copy of De Rovolutionibus to print it at Nuremberg. Copernicus' work was printed in 1543 probably in about 1000 copies. Was entitled "De revolutionibus" or Copernicus Toruńczyk blue circles with a turnover of six books contained in the preface and dedicatory letter to Pope Paul III. Nicolaus Copernicus was a modern scholar and a courageous man seeking the truth about the universe. Advertised in print work has brought the world a new idea. Copernicus life ended May 24, 1543 year due to a stroke. Nicolaus Copernicus was buried under the floor of Frombork cathedral.



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