Po angielsku trzeba było napisać bo było pytanie z angielskiego
In Poland, Christmas Eve is a day first of fasting, then of feasting. The feast begins with the appearance of the first star, and is followed by the exchange of gifts. The following day is often spent visiting friends. Poland is a land of intriguing traditions, superstitions, and legends. Its people have always combined religion and family closeness at Christmas time. Gift giving plays only a minor role in the rituals, emphasis being placed instead on making special foods and decorations. Traditionally, Advent is an important season in the Polish year, with special church services, known as Roraty, being held every morning at 6am. The four Sundays of Advent are said to represent the 4,000 years of waiting for Christ. During Advent and, in some homes, on Christmas Eve, bees wax is poured on water, and fortunes are told from the shapes, which emerge. Special tasks carried out during Advent are the baking of the Christmas piernik or honey cake, and the making of Christmas decorations. Pierniki are made in a great variety of shapes, including hearts, animals and St Nicholas figures. Traditional decorations include the pajaki or spiders, which are handmade mobiles, stars and decorated eggshells. Beautifully lit Christmas trees are placed in all public arenas, outside churches and in homes. Traditionally the trees are decorated with shiny apples, walnuts, beautifully wrapped chocolate shapes and many homemade decorations and candles. On the top of the tree is a star or a glittering top piece. In many homes, sparklers are hung on the branches of the trees giving it a magical air. Sometimes the trees are left standing until February 2, the feast day of St Mary of the Candle of Lightning. During Advent, the Gwiadorzy or star carriers, used to begin wandering through the towns and villages and this would continue until Epiphany. Some of the Gwiadorzy sang carols; others recited verses or put on Szopki or puppet show, or herody or nativity scenes. The last two customs are developments from traditional manger scenes or Jaselka or crib. One tradition unique to Poland is the sharing the "oplatek", a thin wafer into which is pressed a holy picture. People once carried these oplatek from house to house to wish their neighbors a Merry Christmas. Nowadays, the bread is mostly shared with members of the family and immediate neighbors. As each person shares pieces of the wafer with another person, they are supposed to forgive any hurts that have occurred over the past year and to wish the other person all the happiness in the coming year.
On Christmas Eve, so important is the first star of the night that it has been given the affectionate name of "little star" or Gwiazdka, in remembrance of the Star of Bethlehem. On that night, all watch the sky anxiously, hoping to be the first to cry out, "The star!" The moment the star appears, people start eating. Families unite for the most carefully planned meal of the year, Wigilia, the Christmas supper. The Wigilia derives its name from the Latin word vigilare, which means to watch or keep vigil.
According to tradition, bits of hay have been spread beneath the tablecloth as a reminder that Christ was born in a manger. An even number of people must be seated around the table or tradition states someone may die in the coming year. Wigilia is a family feast and it's considered bad luck to entertain a guest on this sacred night. In some places an empty place setting is left at the table for the Baby Jesus or a wanderer who can come in need or if a deceased relative should come and would like to share in the meal. The meal begins with the breaking of the Oplatek. Everyone at the table breaks off a piece and eats it as a symbol of their unity with Christ. There should be 12 meals- symbol of 12 apostles. Poppy seed cake, beet soup, prune dumplings, carp, herrings and noodles with poppy seed are universally Polish Christmas foods. Often there is compote of dry fruits. The remainder of the evening is given to stories and songs around the Christmas tree. It is decorated with nuts, apples and ornaments made from eggshells, coloured paper, straw, and hand blown glass baubles. In areas of the country, children are taught that "The Little Star" brings the gifts. As presents are wrapped, carolers may walk from house to house, receiving treats along the way. In Poland, an elaborate tradition called Wigilia is celebrated. Beginning on Christmas Eve, a strict 24-hour fast is observed which ends with a huge Christmas feast. In honour of the star of Bethlehem, the meal cannot begin until the first star of night appears. Though Christmas is Poland is officially known as Boze Narodzenie, it is most often referred to as Gwiazdka, which means "Little Star" Once the star appears, a special rice wafer blessed by the parish priest and called oplatek, is broken into pieces and shared by all. Then, finally the meal can begin. The feast consists of twelve courses, one for each Apostle. The table is always set with one extra seat in case a stranger, the Holy Spirit, or a deceased relative should appear to share the meal.