Everything that surrounds us, so plant and animal organisms, water, soil and atmosphere, are key components of the environment. Man building new settlements, roads, industrial plants destroyed areas where previously there were plants and animals. Leading not deliberate, careless, and draining the economy increasingly affects przyrodę.Skażone environment endangers human health, causing discomfort, illness, and could even lead to death. For the sake of our health we need to protect nature. Since each of us depends on how it will look like our environment, whether it would be around a clean and pleasant.
At the beginning of his life on earth, a man walked and lived in harmony with nature. Then ecosystems function properly. They circled the energy in the undisturbed. The concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide was maintained at similar levels. Industrial activities cause significant irregularities in the circulation of carbon and sulfur, is associated as a rule of combustion energy. Burning of 1 kg hard to enter the atmosphere with 2 kg of CO. A further increase in the content of the gas in the air can lead to serious climate change. Carbon dioxide accumulates in the lower layers of the atmosphere, causing a rise in the average air temperature. This can cause melting glaciers and rising sea level. Change the conditions of plant and animal life. To avert the possible effects of global warming, it is important to remember that energy efficiency is not just a matter of our spending, but reducing coal consumption in industry and a reduction in air concentrations CO.Ozon growth: the concentration of ozone in the Earth's surface is small, the combination of the oxides nitrogen and hydrocarbons is increased, which is harmful.
The above-mentioned gases form acids, connecting to the drops of water located in the air (wet deposition) or fall to the ground to form acids in the trees, water and soil. Dry deposition of pollutants usually occurs in the vicinity of their sources, while the wet deposition can take place at a distance of more than 1,000 miles from its inception. Acid rain is not enough that pollute the air, you also have a detrimental effect on vegetation, animals and human.
In addition to the greenhouse effect a second, equally dangerous phenomenon is called. ? ozone hole?. In the upper layer of the atmosphere - the stratosphere is ozone, which forms a layer around our planet and absorbs ultraviolet radiation. In recent years the ozone layer decreases, because it distributed the various gases, such as nitrogen oxides or so. chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigerators and aerosols. In places a strong dilution called? Ozonowymi holes? excessive ultraviolet rays penetrate and reach the Earth's surface. Excessive ultraviolet radiation can increase the incidence of skin cancer, accelerating the aging process, diseases of vision. Works also toxic to living organisms in all ecosystems, disrupting the balance biologiczną.Uprzemysłowienie and population growth, air quality deteriorated significantly. Growing demand for energy made by burning the main source of atmospheric pollutants of anthropogenic origin.
Above the town rises to photochemical smog resulting from complex chemical reactions between different pollutants, occurring with the participation of solar radiation. In London in 1952, including smog, fog caused the deaths of 4,000 people. Main ingredient of smog? ozone-proved high-altitude gas that protects life, but is a real poison accumulates in the lower layers of the atmosphere.
In the eighties, the main countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has successfully taken the steps leading to a reduction in the level of atmospheric pollutants emitted by the purification of gases, reducing energy consumption following a shock, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The atmosphere also protects the fuel enrichment, flue gas treatment (eg, dedusting and desulfurization of exhaust), the use of unconventional energy sources. Considerable efforts have been taken in relation to transport, one of the main culprits of pollution. In the vast areas of Eastern Europe and developing countries there has been no visible improvement of air quality. In Eastern Europe the importance of heavy industry, and above all, lack of adequate legislation is such that in big cities? Black triangle? (Silesia, Czech Republic, Ruhr) of sulfur dioxide emission rate remains very high. In developing countries, causing deterioration of the situation is moving into their territory of the old-fashioned, most polluter and the most energy consuming industries (steel, refineries) and poverty measures for the modernization of production. Whatever the direction of evolution in the removal of atmospheric pollution in the entire world to their present level often exceeds the maximum value of removal of atmospheric pollution in the entire world to their present level often exceeds the maximum value set by WHO.
Another threat is elektrownie.W within the plant produces 10 600 gigawatt-hours. This represents an eight per cent of all domestic production. Referred to as the steam, condensing, working on the basis of coal.
Every day the power goes czterdziestowagonowych six trains filled with coal - a total of 12 500 tonnes. On the devices work properly watch specialists. Comply with the parameters and the technological regime.
Environmental pollution may be one of the principal risks arising from activities elektrowni.Odpady constants are a problem faced by all countries of our planet. The source of the waste industry is the first and second place of residence and life. Industrial waste, for economic reasons, are often negligible in the vicinity of the sources of their formation. Therefore, industrial waste dumps and slag heaps are an inseparable part of the industrial landscape. Municipal garbage burying the world at an alarming rate. In densely populated areas there is no place for their safe storage, use of most of municipal garbage dumps defy the basic rules of hygiene, garbage disposal and the procedure leaves much to be desired.
Air pollution are caused not only by power plants and large industrial plants, but also arise in communication vehicle, a plane, in the home.
The importance of water in nature is enormous, because the life of every living organism is dependent on access to clean water. It needed a man on a daily basis, the industry consumes huge quantities, is needed in agriculture. One person uses 200-300 gallons of water a day. To produce 50 mature seeds need cereal 16000-18000 gallons of water. In the factory to make 100 kg of paper need to 100000 liters of water and 1000 liters - to produce 100 liters of water resources benzyny.Stan dispositions shall be considered not only in terms of increasing demand for water, but also the accumulation of load capacity, water pollutants brought in the receivers, which are rivers, ponds, storage reservoirs, oceans and seas. Degradation of water quality include changes in their physico-chemical and biological agents by placing them huge amounts of organic and inorganic substances, energy, and radioactive substances. This prevents the use of water resources for various purposes connected with the activities and human existence. Water pollution can be divided on the grounds of the natural (indigenous) and anthropogenic (alochtoniczne). Even more or less to the Middle Ages was dominated by pollution of natural origin. Were associated primarily with the development and fetal death of aquatic plant and animal organisms. Were also caused by certain substances leaching from rocks and soils.
With the development of cities and industrial centers of the waters began to pay more and more harmful substances.
What is sewage? Sewage water is called spent by households and industrial plants, and rainwater from the surface of Flushing urban and rural, different types of impurities. Wastewater contains a lot of suspensions readily falling, not falling suspensions, colloids and dissolved compounds. They also occur in viruses, bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and eggs helmintów (parasitic worms). Raw sewage is cloudy, the color and smell brudnoszarym or chemical fekalnym depending on the origin. Rotten sewage to the color dark gray or almost black and are stinking of products arising from the decay. Currently, the main sources of water pollution are municipal sewage (containing detergents such as, pathogenic micro-organisms) and industrial (including heavy metals such as salts, sulfur compounds and nitrogen). Serious problem is also agriculture, and exactly how the application of organic fertilizers. The number of farms is exported fertilizer after the harvest of cereals in roots, and then plowed. Soil remains so until the spring of pile without stubble, and the soluble nitrogen and phosphorus to penetrate deep into the soil, providing a source of groundwater contaminants. Significant amounts of water pollution also comes from water and land transportation. Water as a transport routes and water in the vicinity of roads and highways contain increased amounts of lead, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons.
To avoid accumulation of water pollutants are also due to the deposition of pollutants from the air.
Water contamination caused by many factors. Some of them also found in our region, include : Release into the waters of waste substances generated during industrial production in liquid, solid or gas, water contamination with heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium) used in the industry, the accumulation of large amounts of organic debris, which can accelerate the overgrowing of water; chemizacja environment by deliberate introduction of chemicals into the soil in the form of fertilizers and pesticides, lack of sewage treatment plants, runoff directly into the ditches, streams or rivers, soil, rational use of water resources, release into the groundwater of harmful substances from landfills. The problem of wild dumps is a serious problem in Polish forests. Still a lot of people live in the belief that waste and unnecessary things better throw away into the forest than to pay for their exports. They assume that the forest belongs to the state, so it? Ownerless? It is immaterial that he was corrupt, and dirty. This approach makes it in the woods, we can meet all kinds of garbage, from papers, bottles, the old chairs, refrigerators and even the ending. But really the forests belong to all of us, are a common good. Serve leisure, recreation and provide many land? blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, mushrooms. In the interest of all of us is keeping them clean and in good health.
Forest resources of the community can be a great asset for attracting tourists. Many people, especially from big cities looking for rest and peace in the bosom of nature. Not all local authorities are aware of the interest income may be tourism. Cluttering forest villagers, which would be likely to attract tourists to take away that opportunity. Who will want to walk in the woods, where every few feet will lie waste? There is nothing that moves people as economic incentives. So you need to repeat that clean forests can be translated into gains for the local littering ludności.W forests are also its considerable share of tourists. Not a problem for them, so where thrown an empty bottle or package after eating. They have already gone the route, they saw what they wanted and not interested in that, now here comes somebody else who also wants to see the forest without śmieci.Takie behavior is the result of low awareness of our society. Guarantor of the proper approach to nature is a rejection from their earliest years relevant habits and behaviors. Now, many people assumes that they are the rulers of the world. Forest is also for them and have them serve, it can do everything, even arrange a garbage dump. They forget that they only pass through the forest, or cross, and the thick hide the real inhabitants of the kingdom ...
Sewage contains many substances of natural origin and technical different concentrations. Proceeds from the burden of water flowing is definitely different. Standing water: ponds, ponds and lakes are closed systems, as a result of what they can not, as in the case of flowing water "to get rid of" a burden which is to hit them. Rivers have the advantage of standing water that may accompany or hazardous substances. Sewage water brought to wander through the rivers, streams into the sea. The consequence of this is a burden on the seas. Expands on the contamination by organic compounds and heavy metals. Some heavy metals settle in the coastal zone, and partly enter the food chain. They accumulate in organisms representing a further trophic cells. Fish and other marine animals that eat people, contain residues of plant protection products, industrial chemicals and heavy metals. In lakes increased dose of nutrients and organic compounds of sewage origin, accelerate the very process of overgrowing lake algae and their reproduction. As a result, is expanding its light does not reach the deeper layers of the lake, also reduces the amount of oxygen required for living organisms in the water, as a result of this exemption is the distribution of dead plants and animals, which leads to the aging of lakes. The volume of water is growing very fast. Most commonly discharged into the sewage farm slurry. It is very dangerous for the stagnant water and it should be lowered to them. Geared to a slurry of water can lead to total eradication of the fish. When developed massive livestock farmers in ignorance, what to do with it and how it should be consumed. In this case, instead of slurry manure becomes very cumbersome waste. Farmers Application of slurry in the blanks when there is no vegetation in autumn and winter, from flowing into lakes and rivers. Effects are disastrous. Problems with sewage are accompanying phenomenon of civilization. Already in the Middle Ages, numerous bodies of water have turned into stinking "cesspool" by the discharge of their various plants. To counteract the emergence in our time of stinking water treatment plants are built. Since natural waters are increasingly at risk of sewage in recent times by the uprzedmiotowione efforts that were cleaned and the sewage is not discharged into various ways to water.
To protect our water from sewage from farms, and to restrict their movement into ground water farms should:
- All produced on the farm manure and liquid waste stored in special containers located at a distance from the farms and rural homesteads borders,
- Tanks for liquid animal manure should be impermeable walls and bottom and should be tightly covered plate equipped with the entrance hole and a ventilation or floating on the surface of an airtight cover,
- Seek to reduce the amount of manure produced on the farm through the rationalization of water used for livestock hygiene facilities and to reduce leakage from the drinkers, not to increase the volume of the mass, which will be transported to the field,
- Urine, possibly together with manure water can only be stored in airtight containers specially constructed,
- Slurry should be so constructed that it was not the source of infection and animal manure as well as protect against drying, but should not be flooded by rainwater and underground
- Juices kiszonkowych prisms should be discharged to their own odciekowych wells that are part of the silos, which is stored silage,
- Waste not connected to the sewerage system and discharged directly into open waters constitute a threat to the environment,
not to allow the fertilization of plants for waste water to be eaten raw.
Of all environments, soil is the most important environment on Earth. Reducenci live in it, or decaying organisms and mineralizujące remnants of dead plants and animals.
The most important threats to soil include monocultures that lead to its depletion, deforestation, forest vegetation, increasing overall soil erosion, leading to desertification area, drainage areas and river regulation reduces the levels of groundwater, too strong fertilization, intensive grazing of cattle leads to erosion; the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, harvesting of agricultural land for industrial construction and mieszkalne.Do enter the soil particles from the air and inland waters. Some of them falls to the soil in the form of dust, others such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor contained in air. As a result of this reaction creates sulfuric and nitric acids, which enter the rainwater into the soil. All these risks for many plants and animals means the complete loss of living environment, which may lead to their zagłady.Kwaśne it rains all types of acidic precipitation, ie acidic air pollution that may be present in acid rain, fog or snow in the acid. This way of transportation on the ground is called a wet acid deposition. Dry deposition pollution is transported directly to the surface as gases or dust without wilgoci.Kwaśne not absorb the air pollution is caused mainly by four types of gases: Sulfur oxides consisting mainly of SO2, which was mined during the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, as well as from the sea, volcanoes and decomposition of organic matter. These impurities are mainly caused by the steel mills, coking plants and coal-fired plants, oxides of nitrogen: about 50% of them come from natural sources in Europe - only 10% is of natural origin. 90% is produced during high temperature combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, coke plants and transport. Pesticides are chemical plant protection products used in agriculture. Pesticides polichlorowęglowodorowe particular, are harmful because of the long time decay, and the ability to accumulate in the environment and the ease of entering the ranks of the trophic. To enter the water by flushing with opylonych or previously opryskanych plants, leaching from the soil and runoff from sewage plants producing these compounds. Pesticides cause deterioration of the health of groundwater, toxic run, affect the processes of self-cleaning water. To a large extent contribute to eutrophication. Contamination by pesticides are difficult to remove in the purification of drinking water.
The effects of pesticides on the human body
Active substances in pesticides
Causes damage to liver and kidney
Affects the nervous system, a complete carcinogen
Affects the nervous system
Apathy, difficulty breathing, lack of appetite, may be mutagenic
Nausea, cardiovascular disorders, the potential allergen
Affects the nervous system
Potential carcinogen, and teratogén allergen, non-specific symptoms,
nonspecific symptoms, a potential mutagen,
Strong poison, a potential carcinogen and mutagen factor, damage the nervous system,
Acute poison, damaging the nervous system, cause birth abnormalities, vision,
Endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan, tiodan, Bete-endosulfan, dicofol, kelfan,
non-specific symptoms, headache, confusion,
Potential carcinogen, allergen, weakens, causing diarrhea and breathing problems,
Breathing disorders and behavior,
Potential carcinogen, and allergen teratogén
Potential carcinogen, and allergen teratogén
Affects the nervous system, a potential mutagen,
Affects the nervous system,
Mutagenic potential factor, affects the nervous system,
Changes in blood and kidneys.
Farmers use chemical fertilizers especially nitrogen, to help them get better yields. Cultivated surfaces can then be better managed. Farmers, however, often "forget" that too much fertilizer can also cause damage. Fertilizers penetrate the soil and thus contaminate both soil and water, where the permeate along with the rain. Carrying out a systematic study during the late winter, early spring, and therefore during the melting snow after heavy rains in the summer and autumn, when a large quantity of water "goes" to the surface layers of soil, it appears that the transition of nitrate to groundwater and surface water increases from year to year more and more. Contamination of the aquatic environment of nitrogen fertilizer can cause not only by their irrational use, but also by improper storage of fertilizers and agricultural cleaning pens. Mineral fertilizers in the form of liquid and solid should be stored in their original packaging or adapted for this purpose containers in warehouses or under a roof. Allowed to store these fertilizers in windrows formed on impermeable ground and hardened. Loading and unloading of solid fertilizers and liquid fertilizers transfusion must be done in such a way as to exclude them get to the surface of the soil. With excessive nitrogen fertilizers load water pumping units have only one solution: bring the less contaminated water from distant countries terenów.Wiele intends to reduce the use of fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers. The practice, however, shows that for a long time, those guidelines still remain in the world of dreams. Each farmer should limit its release into the holding of nitrogen fertilizer to water by applying the following principles:
- Chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen should be applied immediately before the start of the growing season,
- Avoid the use of nitrogen fertilizers during the prolonged drought,
- The permanent pasture nitrogen fertilization can be applied to early September, when the temperature in September will be conducive to grass growth,
- To avoid contamination of water, do not use any fertilizer if heavy rain expected over the next 48 hours,
- Do not exceed the recommended dose of nitrogen,
- Tools used to distribution of mineral and organic fertilizer should be in good condition, because it provides a specific nitrogen application,
- The amount of fertilization should be adapted to the nutritional requirements of plants in a specific phase of growth, in particular soil conditions that will ensure optimum yield economically and safely because of the environment,
- Dose of nitrogen fertilizer should be divided into several parts, depending on the sampling component of the plant. The first dose was applied before sowing, planting in spring or the beginning of vegetation period of winter crops, and then in periods of active growth of plants.
In everyday life we meet with environmental pollution, which are wastes of human activity. Waste and pollution, counted in the first group are those that lend themselves biodegradable. Proper management of the waste products such as sewage treatment plants may be of great economic importance. The second group includes the waste and pollution of non-erodible. These include: aluminum packaging, industrial waste containing mercury, zinc, lead the production of cullet for example mercury lamps, waste from the manufacture of paints and varnishes containing, inter alia, cadmium, arsenic and mercury.
Waste of the first group can be used, but are related to the costs of building adequate treatment in the case of plants, regeneration of whole systems, and industrial plants that use waste as raw materials.
Protection of nature, in statutory terms, it means the preservation, proper use and renewal of natural resources and its components, in particular wild plants or animals, natural habitats, habitats of protected species of plants or animals, the animals engaged in a nomadic life, plants or animals, covered by protected under separate provisions, inanimate nature, landscape and green areas in towns and villages.
Protection of nature is to:
maintenance of ecological processes and ecosystem stability,
conservation of biodiversity,
preservation of geological heritage,
ensure continuity of plant or animal species with habitats by maintaining or restoring them to the appropriate state,
protection of greenery in cities and towns, in particular the protection of trees and shrubs;
maintain or rehabilitate natural habitats and other natural resources and its components,
development of proper attitudes towards human nature.
People in operation without restraint: plants, animals, soil, water, air and minerals for the manufacture of almost all the necessary products. Often lead to devastation and destruction of these natural resources. Nature conservation means wise use of these resources and their protection. This also implies the obligation to preserve nature's most beautiful natural extracts (reserves). Currently, preservation of life in the environment and natural resources is a global problem. I am involved in including Ecology, is a branch of biology that studies the interdependence of living beings and their środowiska.Walka to protect the environment is extremely difficult, primarily because the enemy is often a rich powerful corporations. Enterprises engaged in logging enriching themselves by the fact that people are engaged in cut huge swathes of tropical forests. Then graze on the farmers obtained in this way areas cattle and pigs, which then gets processed meat, and exports mainly to rich countries. The owners of the mine in search of valuable minerals, devastating entire regions in order to provide raw material for large factories. All this practice are disastrous for the environment, only serves to meet the needs of a relatively small group of people worldwide zamożnych.Okazuje that the main culprit is the destruction of nature społeczeństwo.Wszyscy would like to see beautiful scenery, wildlife in its natural state, yet we forget that the damage to be done are the consequence of our consumer modes of life. There is now probably the world's people who do not know that that environmental pollution is growing that global warming is the fact that growing up garbage is a huge problem. Still, there are so many people who do not see that changing your habits slightly, you can really do a lot for the environment, and even for their portfolios. After you have come to appreciate the conclusion that it does not pay them to live organically, because the city / state does not give rise to conditions, he himself does not change the world, after all. However, there are so many forms and ways to save the world in which we live, that for wanting it is not difficult. And that we do not change the world, it is difficult, but if I live I can convince ecologically parents, tell your friends about it and somehow it will go away. If everyone thought this way, instead of disparaging swing arm, long ago we could say that what we are doing what they do single person has an impact on the fate of the world. It is therefore important that we szanowaliśmy what nature gives us, our environment because once, when we proceed to act like many of us, a world in which we live zniknie.Poprzez carelessness about the environment .. So all Respecting the earth, as it is it gives us allows us to harvest various crops. When you neglect it you will not spend the harvest. We will repay the same as we give it. Let us be part of a clean world, not let others destroy our Mother Earth.
Distinguished experts in recent years, the main types of ecological risks of a global nature:
1.rozprzestrzenianie to toxic substances (heavy metals) which are more biologically decomposed chemical or radioactive
2.niszczenie forests and acidification of water bodies by industrial poison (acid rain),