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After retreating at the beginning of the V century rzym to the British Isles arrived legions (about 450 of year) Germanic peoples: Anglowie, Saxons and Jutowie which enough quickly organised pagan patrimonial kingdoms in the Britain. By them she lived, the Celtic population still imbued with French cultural influences, but the pose with Wales, Scotland and Cornwall a speech and customs of invaders were imposed upon her. In the end the VIII centuries Normans started running and conquering England. In the second half the IX age the effective opposition was able for them turn up only Great Alfred, master of the Wessexu kingdom which united Anglo-Saxons.
Great Alfred was the first English king, but his successor similarly to he alone, governed the united country (except for lying in the North koloni Danish, called Danelaw). A coin from the contemporary London mint provided with the Latin inscription of Alfredas rex Anglicorum behaved (Alfred king of Englishmen). They assume that with for her smashing an age of the Wessex kingdom ended, and a history of England started - of the oldest national European monarchy.
Alfred's descendants didn't equal him with abilities after the offensive of Danes in 1016 the year and driving Edward out for the Believer, of the last representative of the dynasty from Wessexu, England became the part of the Danish empire of the king of the Large Canute. In 1066 pursued the year to Normans' invasion from Normandii in north France, on which forehead a William the Conqueror stood up. The victory in a battle under Hastings led him to throwing down Anglo-Saxons from the peak of the social ladder and replacing them with Normans. When for you with time they lost their soil on the continent, their royal dynasty and the aristocracy gained English character.
In order to strengthen the royalty, the William the Conqueror filled existing regional units, called counties with trusted clerks (with sheriffs) which collected taxes and exercised courts. Simultaneously he obliged all knights to the allegiance to the king. William attached the huge scale to the smooth functioning of the tax system. We just owe to it created in 1085 of year cadastre (list) Book tax, familiar to Domesday (ang. Book of the day of judgment). He constitutes the invaluable source for getting to know social relations and economic of country. The list had to be unusually accurate, since contemporary for him the chronicler noted a little bit ironically and with the thrust: They conducted research with such a fullness of detail, that (to write shame about it, at least a king didn't regard shy it) there were no not a single one yard of the earth, not a single one ox, or cow, or pig which wouldn't be written in the report.
Conquest of Wales, of country mountainous and divided in middle ages in the plenty of small estates, took place after all in year 1282, during the reign of Edward and. two years later articles of association from Rhuddlan incorporated Wales into the English crown. In order to calm the Welsh population, given birth on this earth future king II Edward received the title of the prince of Wales, what initiated the tradition of naming his elder sons of the ruling monarch this way with. The administrative union took place after all in 1536.
Britain was the dominant industrial and maritime power in the nineteenth century and played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science.
At the height of the British Empire stretched to the earth's surface. The two world wars in the first half of the twentieth century, strength seriously depleted in the United Kingdom. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the United Kingdom has transformed itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of the five permanent members of UN Security Council, founding member of NATO and Commonwealth Office, UK pursues a global foreign policy.

Wielka Brytania była dominującą potęgą przemysłową i morską w XIX wieku i odegrała wiodącą rolę w rozwoju demokracji parlamentarnej, a także rozwoju literatury i nauki.
U szczytu potęgi Imperium Brytyjskie rozciągało się na ¼ powierzchni Ziemi. Obie wojny światowe z pierwszej połowy XX wieku znacznie uszczupliły siłę Zjednoczonego Królestwa. W drugiej połowie ubiegłego wieku Imperium uległo rozpadowi, a sama Wielka Brytania przekształciła się w nowoczesne i zamożne społeczeństwo europejskie. Jako jeden z pięciu stałych członków Rady Bezpieczeństwa ONZ, założyciel NATO i Brytyjskiej Wspólnoty Narodów, Wielka Brytania cały czas prowadzi aktywną politykę zagraniczną.