Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centers. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. Scotland's head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). The main land of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the northwest coast of Continental Europe. The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. In general, the west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east. Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north west of Europe. There are important populations of seals. Scotland was the first country since Sparta in classical Greece to implement a system of general public education.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe. Poland is the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Poland has one of the highest number of lakes in the world. In Europe, only Finland has a greater density of lakes. The largest lakes, covering more than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), are Lake Śniardwy and Lake Mamry in Masuria, and Lake Łebsko and Lake Drawsko in Pomerania. Many animals that have since died out in other parts of Europe still survive in Poland, such as the wisent in the ancient woodland of the Białowieża Forest and in Podlachia. Other such species include the brown bear in Białowieża, in the Tatras, and in the Beskids, the gray wolf and the Eurasian Lynx in various forests, the moose in northern Poland, and the beaver in Masuria, Pomerania, and Podlachia. The climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. Poland is a democracy, with a president as a head of state, whose current constitution dates from 1997. In the 19th and 20th centuries many Polish scientists worked abroad. The greatest was Maria Skłodowska-Curie, a physicist and chemist living in France. In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing center of mathematics. Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the Lwów School of Mathematics and Warsaw School of Mathematics.