Eutrophication is secondary pollution, the process of accumulation of organic matter (flowing in effluents of municipal and industrial) at a rate exceeding its assimilation. This process results in the enrichment of water with nutrients - elements bog, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, and potassium and sodium, causing excessive production of algal biomass, resulting in the so-called. algal blooms. Leads mainly to changes in water properties, consisting in the presence of intense staining (mainly in coastal zones, seas), turbidity, large fluctuations in oxygen concentration and acidity (pH) in the upper layer and the creation of anoxic conditions in deeper layers, which is the cause of the extinction of animal organisms in particular fish.
Eutrophication leads to the dominance of anaerobic organisms such as saprobionts and the accumulation of large quantities of organic matter (sludge) as a result, the sea come to pay more and more coastal areas to sea.
Eutrophication can be natural or anthropogenic origin. Anthropopression the impact of man on the natural environment and present in the biocenosis. Currently, this factor shows a strong negative activities.
Eutrophication of marine natural origin is nothing but the provision of organic matter by the elements contained in the atmosphere and it is strictly regulated by the animal world.
The Baltic Sea joins many European rivers, including Neva, Vistula, Kemi, Göta, Nemunas, Oder, Lule, Ĺngerman, Daugava. Surface water catchment area covers 17% of the continent, its area home to more than 150 million people. After a period of tremendous respect for the sea, there was a time in which many of its secrets were discovered, and their explanation was a sound scientific basis. The seas and coasts are variously used today, and eutrophication is not a result of large conurbations.
Contamination of sewage flowing down the Baltic Sea, mainly from rivers, and irresponsible policies leads to a breach of human balance in the shallow coastal waters where algae bloom is disturbing the correct reproduction of organisms. Hope that the sea is an endless source of food, turned out to be a tragic illusion. Some coastal areas are from the ecological point of view known. "Deserts." Tributary wetlands compounds derived mainly from agriculture, and inadequate treatment of waste water entering the Baltic Sea catchment which is the primary cause of productivity growth, simulating the development of suitable lighting massive phytoplankton. This phenomenon is referred to as just "blooming" of water, which was amended by the color suspended in the depths give millions of single-celled plants. At the time of death comes to their decomposition by bacteria. But micro-organisms need oxygen to remineralisation lot and very quickly consume their stocks in the water. This results in water followed by a drastic decrease in oxygen content. With few exceptions marine animals are not adapted to such conditions, and therefore comes to mass ginięcia. In the first instance is subject to the benthic animals.
SNIEC phenomenon caused by lack of oxygen also occurs naturally. In the center of the Baltic Sea, around Gotland, still comes to a natural oxygen deficits due to override podmorskimi ridges layers of water near the bottom. Abnormally high flow of nutrients in these conditions much worse and far more perilous situation. Thus, in the Gulf of German summer 1981 and 1982 was seen extreme oxygen deficits, accompanied by, described the negative phenomena. It was not until the autumn storms led to the re-mixing of the water and the renewal of oxygen supplies. Influx of toxic compounds has led to significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, zinc and lead in organisms forming the final link in the food chain. So heavily contaminated animals are not fit for human consumption, pose a threat because of people's lives. Further hazardous substances that in large amounts go to the sea, are crude oil and its derivative compounds. Masters pour - it's quicker, easier and cheaper - oil waste into the sea during the voyage, rather than get rid of it at the port.
We must take into account that the main cause of eutrophication has been originated on land, where the main source of water pollution is the fuel industry, energy, chemical and metallurgical. In 1991 in Poland, the water collected to the needs of the economy have changed in the effluent (99% in industry). Purified from this only 67%, where, and so, unfortunately, dominated by mechanical treatment, whose effects are very mediocre. Industrial pollution from entering the water directly in the form of water, some could also come from air pollution. Dropped or mineral salts along with water podkopalnianymi. All these compounds indirectly found their way into the Baltic Sea. Salinity of certain sections of the Vistula and Oder, and their tributaries (especially in Upper Silesia) reaches 7g/dcmł, which corresponds to the salinity of the Baltic. Threat to water getting to the catchment is emitted into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide, which is falling down on the land they invaded acidified to groundwater and the deep sea. Not without significance is the fact that almost the entire area belongs to the Polish Baltic Sea catchment. The basic share in the Baltic Sea pollution are sewage transported by the Vistula and Oder. From the information gathered for the implementation of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea shows that Poland has a large share of pollution of this sea. Discharged a load of Polish BOD is expressed in 22% of the total load of pollutants discharged, including the Baltic States and the load of nitrogen and phosphorus is respectively 38 and 36%.
Today the Baltic Sea is very shallow, the average depth is 52 meters, connecting to the adjacent North Sea only by narrow and shallow straits, which impede the flow of salty ocean water. It is estimated, therefore, that the self-purification ability of the Baltic Sea is very low. An important feature of the Baltic waters is their low salinity of about 7%, and stratification. All these factors help you even have a progressive degree of eutrophication.
Between the surface layer, and the abyssal waters is called. middleware (haloklin), where there is a sharp increase in salinity and thus density of water. It is a barrier to mixing of surface waters with deep, which is why the latter are less well oxygenated. The greatest depths of the Baltic comes up to the total oxygen consumption (in the process of mineralization of organic matter) and the production of hydrogen sulfide toxicity for animals. The situation improves only oxygen infusions greater well-oxygenated waters of the Kattegat. Comes to them, but only during heavy storms, usually once every few years.
Baltic, as we know it is very dirty. Millions of pollutants reaching the waters of the sea and the storm's natural rhythm. For attenuation uses three factors to help him dispose of the pollutant:
. hydrodynamic process, based on the movements of water masses and try to water exchange between the sea and ocean;
. biological and physical-chemical process in which living organisms are involved, such as birds, fish, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria.
The intensity of the process of attenuation increases as a continuous flow of oxygen when the temperature is higher and faster movement of water treatment and distribution of rapid gas exchange with the atmosphere. The process of eutrophication is lost only if the limit reaches the appropriate standard for the proper functioning of the aquatic life. For the interference process occurs when the sea can be reached excessive levels of sewage and garbage, and when there are poisonous substances. The matter becomes very serious and dangerous when it comes to accidents, shipwreck. Then the sea is not able to cope with the huge problem and needs human assistance.
Organically by increasing pollution and eutrophication process of deepening the Baltic Sea is a transitional living environment and the poor. They represent the marine plants and animals. saltwater and freshwater.
Flora is poor, both qualitatively and quantitatively, shows a clear geographic differentiation. It is composed mainly algae - green algae, brown, krasnorosty, rarely flowering plants, dominated by magnificent green algae (eg, tape, seaweed, Chara), rare - Kelp (exists depth. Fucus vesiculosus).
Animal world. Fauna of the Baltic Sea is relatively scarce and determines its nature and various low salinity waters. There are typically marine species, as well as freshwater species. Reduce salinity in the direction of north. and east. causes the decline of marine species (and shrunk) and simultaneously increasing the number of freshwater species. Mammals represented by gray and ringed seal, porpoise, fish - D. cod, herring, flatfish (flounder, plaice, dab), sprat, mackerel, salmon, garfish, bullhead (sculpin is a relic of laying sheets), eel. Invertebrates are represented somewhat more by the mussels (eg, chert, mussel, cockle, piaskołaz), crustaceans (eg shrimp, double, lasonóg great, and scuds, also a grade Wieloszczetów.
Losses due to decline in fishing is just one of the harm that would trigger the biological death of the Baltic Sea. Not all can be converted into money. Contamination may occur to such an example, the level that it was impossible, or at least dangerous to health may be taking a dip in the Baltic, and dirty beaches are no longer an attractive location for summer rest. Attempts to stop (by way of international agreements on how to use the Baltic Sea) to the biological process of decline was caused mainly by concern for good fishing. Getting agreement on fisheries in the Baltic states have been concluded in the late nineteenth century, the convention was signed, provided for Denmark and Sweden in 1899, and to regulate fishing on the water
s adjacent to these countries. In later years, contains many similar agreements on the protection of individual fish species from overfishing and regulation of the legal issues associated with the operation of the living resources of the Baltic. However, none of the systems does not extend to the entire Baltic Sea area, has not been signed by all the countries lying on him and did not concern the whole issue of environmental protection of the marine world from destruction.
In 1973, he held a diplomatic conference in Gdansk, the Baltic states. This meeting was successfully completed, was passed and signed the Convention on Fishing for the Protection of the living resources of the Baltic Sea, which, after ratification by all countries concerned in force today across the Baltic, with the exception of internal waters. The adoption and ratification of the Convention in Gdansk opened the way for further international agreements on the protection of the Baltic marine environment from all types of pollution. Soon after signing the initiative taken to Finland works to draft a convention regulating the matter. When such a project was prepared, from 18 to 22 March 1974 in Helsinki was again convened a diplomatic conference of the Baltic States. Also, and this conference has achieved its objective. It passed the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea. This Convention applies to ways to safeguard against pollution of the Baltic Sea all the hazardous and noxious substances originating from all possible sources. It is very important because the existing international agreements on the protection of the marine environment, only to regulate the matter to the sea disposal of oil and its derivatives. Under the provisions of the Helsinki Convention the Contracting States shall take appropriate measures to minimize pollution of the Baltic Sea shore. It was agreed that the removal of land from the sea of larger quantities of any harmful substances will require special permission in each case the national authorities. All countries concerned will develop and adopt common criteria for issuing such permits. Countries - signatories of the Convention are required for the treatment of municipal and industrial sewage in such a way that their removal to the Baltic is not followed a significant drop in oxygen content in its waters. Waste water should not deteriorate the hygienic conditions of the sea, nor pose an epidemiological risk. Nature conservation Baltic Sea is a new obligation, arising from the signing of the Helsinki Convention of 1992. Until the nineties are not discussed this issue, mainly because the researchers did not raise these issues. Only new Helsinki Convention of 1992 raised the issue to the level of Member States' obligations. Created Baltic Sea Protected Areas System (Baltic Sea Protected Areas BSPA), which covers 62 of the Baltic regions. Poland has proposed the simplest possible extension of the existing systems of protection of national parks and coastal landscape of the coastal waters. In addition to creating underwater reserves, are also placed on other forms of nature conservation, such as protecting the coastal belt (width of 100300 m from the water towards the coast and towards the sea), to protect species of rare or endangered organisms (such as wild salmon, porpoise) and endangered habitats (eg meadows of underwater vegetation.)
In my opinion, we must realize that our ability to act are enormous, but very often we can not predict long-term consequences of our actions. If you change the chemical conditions prevailing in the ocean in such a way that we allow the distribution to him, we artificially generated biochemically active compounds, can affect the biological balance. What we require the creation of hundreds of millions of years, we can destroy over the decades.
ALBO TO ;
1st Sources of pollution
a) waste water - waste water from the target location of our homes (toilets, washing machines) and, unfortunately, is always the Baltic. In Sweden and the Nordic countries operate effective waste water treatment plants which purify water from most of the substance before it affected the sea.
b) agriculture - mostly insecticides and herbicides. After spraying these plants usually after some time the rain falls. They are then transported with the rainwater to the nearest river or lake, and thence to the sea.
c) water transport - of all the oceans of the world most affected by the development of European civilization two inland seas: the Mediterranean and the Baltic. The situation of the Baltic Sea is particularly tragic. On the coast of established 60 large urban agglomerations, and in all the Baltic countries live approximately 150 million people (over the sea about 85 million!). The Baltic is a busy transport route, which is annually transported 200 million tons of cargo. This represents 10% of total water of the world!
d) chemical-chemical industry annually thrown into the sea of tons of fertilizer nitrogen and phosphorous, and chemical wastes from factories.
e) the tanker crash - repeatedly off the coast of the Baltic Sea is sinking the ship with oil. Doing so is always a huge ecological disaster of the country, which sank off the coast of the tanker. Oil leaking from it, kills the whole drift of the flora and fauna encountered.
f) low salinity - salinity Baltic Sea is from 2 per mille in the upper northern part of the 10 in the south of Øresund. Many interesting organisms does not reside in the Baltic Sea because of low salinity. There are only 80 major species in the sea (in porónaniu with over 1,000 species in the western Swedish coast), so that each species has plenty of space in it.
g) the extraction of oil - is putting a great platform to always leave a scrap at the bottom. There is significant risk that the oil comes out of the shaft and the surrounding area zatruje water.
h) submerged missiles - are in the Danish zone. encased in missiles and bombs poison gases are harvested by the sailors. Pose a serious threat to the people of the sea, can contribute to the mass destruction of life in the Baltic.
1.porty 2.odpady 3.żegluga 4.przemysł Minin
1.przemysł 2.gospodarka community 3.rolnictwo 4.motoryzacja
2nd Effects of pollution
a) the extinction of flora and fauna - in the sea if the situation does not improve, it will be dead in 50 years.
b) przeżyźnianie - useless mass development of algae of the genus of cyanobacteria. They cause clouding of the water in the surface layer, which limits the development of shallow vegetation in the absence of light. Cyanobacteria produce poisonous substances which kill the animal organisms (eg, massive seal plague).
c) disturbance of the genetic code - by poisoning may be disrupting the genetic code of living organisms. The result is a distortion of the increased mortality of embryos and adults.
d) the collapse of the fishery - fishing will suffer most of the Baltic States. Many people have doubts about whether herring, cod and sprat are still fit for human consumption.
e) the collapse of tourism - the Baltic Sea is one, big, stinking puddles no one will want to come over the sea. On the beaches instead of people will be rubbish and dead fish.
f) tranportu fall - in the sea water so thick with dust, dirt, water, dead organisms that will be difficult to move around in it. Lose on the owners who will have to cancel the cruise.
The most serious problem of the Baltic Sea are now biogenicznymi contamination. For example, in 1995 the waters of our sea hit 760 746 tons of nitrogen and 37 652 tons of phosphorus. Unfortunately, many of these substances comes from the area of our country.
Loads of nitrogen introduced by the Baltic States - data from 199
Loads of phosphorus introduced by the Baltic States - data from 1995
Equally dangerous to the environment is pollution by heavy metals. Calculated that in 1995 the Baltic Sea got at least 13 330 kg of mercury, 23 610 kg of cadmium, 4 032 770 kg of zinc, 1 594 710 kg of copper and 337 400 kg of lead. It is difficult to accurately determine the amount of pollutants entering the oil. It is estimated that gets into the Baltic each year from 21 to 66 thousand. tonnes of these substances. In terms of unit volume of water flow is two times larger than the North Sea, and three times larger than the North Atlantic.