Marie Sklodowska Curie - Biography
Maria Sklodowska - Curie (1867 - 1934) was an eminent scientist, totally devoted to his research. For many years he worked on the phenomenon of radioactivity was the result of those efforts among other things, the discovery of two elements, radium and polonium. After years of hard work, sacrifice and risk to the health of its activity has been recognized, making among other things, doubling the Nobel Prize award.
Maria Sklodowska was born on 7 Nov 1867. She grew up in Warsaw in the family home at Fret Street 16, had three older siblings, his sister Sophia (who died at the age of fourteen years of typhus), Bronislawa (also chosen careers, received her doctorate, she settled in Zakopane, where he ran, which was founded together with her husband, Kazimierz Dłuskim, a sanatorium for tuberculosis) and brother Joseph (MD, a longtime chief surgeon of the Infant Jesus Hospital in Warsaw). Scientific traditions were strong in the family Skłodowskich. Father, Wladyslaw Skłodowski, was a teacher and taught mathematics and physics, the mother of the house Bronislaw Bogunka, served as a superior high school for girls. All four of their children grew up in an atmosphere of respect for science. Education paid a lot of time and attention.
Maria Sklodowska attended a private school, then after the death of her mother (1877), when the family's financial situation has worsened significantly, moved to the Russian school. After graduating from high school dokształcał themselves. The country could not continue their studies at a higher level, so in 1891 he went to Paris. There, she studied in very difficult conditions, it lacked money even for food, and still have a worthwhile lesson. After all she graduated from there two licencjaty - physics and mathematics. After graduation he briefly returned to Warsaw, but there was no possibility of scientific research (for UW in general women are not educated), was returned to Paris.
Shortly thereafter, she met Pierre Curie professor at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry in Paris. Combine their shared passion, both were fascinated by the natural world. After a short period of engagement, in 1895, Maria Sklodowska married Pierre Curie. United their feelings and working life. This relationship has resulted in two children, Irene, who was also a scientist and, like his mother received a Nobel Prize and an Eve, among other things, known as the author of a biography of his mother.
In 1897, Maria Sklodowska-Curie undertook experimental research in preparation for writing his doctoral thesis. Moreover, it discusses the invisible rays emitted by uranium salts. At that time, Pierre Curie worked on crystals, but the wife and her work suggests that in these salts, there may be some hitherto undiscovered element, aroused his curiosity, so that it abandoned its own research and has offered to work with Maria. The task is not easy, the state had no Curie laboratory, working in a normal, an unheated shed, often using quite primitive apparatus. However, the effort paid off, after three years of hard work councils have discovered - yet unknown element, having a much stronger (approximately 400 times) than the radioactive properties of uranium oxide.
Success mobilized to further their research efforts, which led to the discovery in 1898, another element - polonium (named after Mary's homeland).
Further work should focus on the separation of radium from the ore in its pure form. Their research activities grew in momentum, to separate councils, brought the whole tones (a total of about eight) of radioactive uranium meconium. In 1903 they managed to achieve another goal, given decigramme pure radium chloride. In the December 1898 year, the Member Curie are ready to present their results of the Paris Academy of Sciences. Announce the discovery of the chemical properties of radium.
In the summer of 1899 years, Maria and Peter are staying in Zakopane in Bronislawa sisters. The year 1903 saw Mary and a Ph.D. Nobel Prize, which granted both spouses for the discovery of radioactivity.
In 1906, aged 47 Pierre Curie dies. Although Mary mourning and isolation continues to research that lead her eventually to isolate pure radium and radium in the metallic state. For these achievements in 1911, the second time it is awarded the Nobel Prize.
In 1914, the First World War broke out, Maria Sklodowska-Curie took the action for wounded soldiers, organizing sanitary aid, and especially X-ray stations.
After the war he had undertaken, aiming to expand the Radium Institute. Also wanted to establish the existence of a similar institution in Poland. deliberately takes effect, and 1932 years of the initiative and formed the Warsaw Radium Institute, who led both the therapeutic activity and research.
Marie Curie became the first woman received time lecturer University of Paris, worked there for 40 years. She was a member of more than scientific associations, held a series of travel and gave lectures (including the U.S.).
Died on 4 July 1934 at four o'clock in the morning. The direct cause of death was a blood disorder. After many years spent among the radioactive element body bore multiple traces. Her body is made next to the corpse of her husband in his hometown - Sceaux.
Was a man of science, working primarily in the field of physics and chemistry, while the values professed humanist, believed in the power of science and the power of human values:
"You can not hope to steer the world toward better roads, provided that the unit does not divert to a safer" - Marie Curie.