Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 in Edinburgh, died. July 7, 1930 in Crowborough) - Scottish poet, freemason, a leading representative of mainstream detective novels in which the main character is Sherlock Holmes. Doyle came from a poor aristocratic family. His father, an alcoholic, tormented the children and wife. Arthur's mother moonlighted as a washerwoman to feed his family. He studied medicine at Edinburgh and in 1890 ran a medical practice.Then came the only writer. In addition to the criminal tracks also wrote historical novels, science fiction, sensational and non-fiction books. Among his most important works are: Hound of the Baskervilles, Studies in crimson and several movies the novel The Lost World, where an eccentric scientist has created a character George Challenger.On his legacy consists of the sample poems and a few horror stories, kept in the style of nineteenth-century Gothic novels, the prose of Edgar Allan Poe and Ambrose Bierce;a.He also spiritualism, which most of his life was an ardent enthusiast and researcher, including lost friendship with Harry Houdini, who had to unmask spiritists. Doyle believed that Houdini is a very powerful medium, spiritualist, believing many of his tricks as manifestations of psychic forces, and its activity is demaskatorska just disposal of the competition (see: At the edge of the unknown Doyle, published after the death of Houdini, in 1931) .This case has made the two erstwhile friends, the public enemies. However, Doyle has a big role in the development literature spirytystycznej - is such author two-volume work, The History of Spiritualism (1926) and author of the translation into English of the French works of Léon Denis Le mystère de Jeanne d'Arc (English title: The Mystery of Joan of Arc) Participant Boer War.
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Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1859. Doyle's family (Conan was his middle name, and it was only later in life that he began to use it as his surname) sent him to Jesuit boarding schools to be educated, and he later entered the University of Edinburgh Medical School in 1881.
One of his professors at the university was Dr. Joseph Bell, who became the model for Doyle's Sherlock Holmes. It was Bell who drummed into Doyle's head the importance of using his innate powers of observation to help him deduce the nature of a patient's affliction.
Shortly after, his father fell ill, and Doyle was forced to become the breadwinner for the family. He worked for a time as a ship's doctor, then opened his own medical practice near Portsmouth. In his spare time he did more writing.
In 1885 Conan Doyle married Louise Hawkins, and had two children with her, before she died after a protracted illness in 1900. In 1907 he remarried, to Jeanne Leckie, and had three more children with her.
His third attempt at a novel was A Study in Scarlet, the story which introduced Sherlock Holmes to the world. Study was published in Mrs. Beeton's Christmas annual, in 1887. Encouraged by publishers to keep writing, Conan Doyle wrote his second Holmes mystery, The Sign of the Four, in 1890.
So successful were these novels, and the stories which followed, that Conan Doyle could afford to give up his medical practice and devote himself to writing full time.
The first Sherlock Holmes short story, A Scandal in Bohemia, appeared in The Strand Magazine in 1891, to be followed by two dozen more stories over the next several years.
The stories proved enormously successful, but Conan Doyle tired of his own creation, and in 1894 he killed Holmes off in The Final Problem.
He underestimated the popularity of his creation. So great was the hold that the character of Sherlock Holmes had taken on the public imagination that Conan Doyle found himself at the centre of a storm of controversy.
He was inundated with letters of protest, including one from a female reader who addressed him simply as "You Brute!". He bowed to the inevitable, and revived the character of Holmes, who appeared in numerous short stories over the next 23 years.
But Conan Doyle did not confine himself to Sherlock Holmes; he wrote several popular works of historic fiction, including Micah Clarke (1888), The White Company (1890), Rodney Stone (1896), and Sir Nigel (1906).
Conan Doyle served as a doctor in the Boer War, and on his return he wrote two books defending England's participation in that conflict. It was for these books that he received his knighthood in 1902.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle died on July 7, 1930, and is buried in the churchyard at Minstead Hampshire. He can rightly be credited with helping create the literary genre of the detective story. Though Edgar Allen Poe's Dupin predates Sherlock Holmes, it was the Holmes' stories that solidified in the public mind what a good detective should be.

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